Journal of Curriculum Studies 49卷第4期
1. Teacher counter stories to a citizenship education mega policy narrative. Preparing for citizenship in Chile
Author: Eduardo Cavieres-Fernández Program in Philosophy and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (02 Jan 2017): 414-436.
The present article focuses on the counter stories of two Chilean social studies high school teachers. Counter stories describe how teachers use their professional experience to confront those mega narratives composed of dominant educational policies that impinge upon their pedagogical practices. The mega narrative described in this study as a citizenship education mega policy narrative is composed by citizenship educational guidelines that have become influenced by other market-driven educational policies, and is not only present in Chile but has also been influenced by policies coming from countries such as England and the US. Therefore, the discussions that emerge from these counter stories on the nature of this mega narrative and the ways through which teachers can confront it through their teaching, and the implications that all this has for the field of citizenship education, do not only fill a gap in Chilean research but also contribute to discussions on counter and mega narratives in the field of citizenship education within a wider international scope.
2. What happened and why? Considering the role of truth and memory in peace education curricula
Author: Solvor Mjøberg Lauritzen & Tuva Skjelbred Nodeland
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (05 Jan 2017): 437-455
This paper is an exploration of challenges arising in the interplay between a standardised peace education curriculum and a localised post-conflict setting. Drawing on interview data from two Kenyan schools, the paper explores the reception of peace education initiatives implemented in Kenya following the post-election violence of 2007/2008 through the voices of teachers and pupils. The analysis identifies two patterns emerging from the pupils’ point of view; firstly an engagement with narratives of conflict addressing what happened during the outbreak of violence, and secondly an awareness of collective narratives of the past, centred on the question of why the conflict broke out. The data identifies a gap between the knowledge and perspectives of the pupils, and the level of engagement by the curricula and teachers in the same issues. Finally, the paper explores some implications of these diverging needs and perspectives in relation to the design and implementation of peace education curricula, particularly in relation to providing sufficient support for the teachers.
3. Rethinking the modernist curriculum with Habermas’s concept of self-critical appropriation
Author: Ariel Sarid
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (23 Mar 2017): 456-475
The primary objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of applying Habermas’s concept of self-critical appropriation for rethinking the structure of the modernist curriculum, specifically the organization of school subjects and instruction time devoted to each of them. To this end, the paper examines Habermas’s differentiation between the three expert cultures of science, morality and art in modernity as well as the role that Habermas envisions for education in modern societies. On the basis of the above differentiation, this paper briefly reviews three national curriculums (England, France, Finland) in order to substantiate the dominant scientific-objectivating orientation underlying the structure of current national curriculums. The review provides the contextual-factual background for rethinking the curriculum. Responding to the challenges facing curriculums in the postmodern era (both theoretical and practical), this paper presents two principles stemming from the application of the concept of self-critical appropriation: balancing the curriculum and the introduction of an integrator-subject for the development and exercise of communicative competences.
4. ‘Freedom can only exist in an ordered state’: harmony and civic education in Singapore
Author: Li-Ching Ho
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (04 Mar 2016): 476-496
This paper uses the concept of stories of peoplehood to examine how the Singapore government has constructed a story of harmony and to consider how this story has influenced two important school subjects focused on civic education: Social Studies and Character and Citizenship Education. Stories of peoplehood, including constitutive, economic and political power stories, play a central role in the political project of people-making which involves defining the nature of membership in a political community and promoting a collective political identity. This study provides an alternative way of conceptualizing the goals and curriculum content of civic education and it also offers an example of how a nation state with a strong Confucian tradition has chosen to address the educational goal of living together through the promotion of values such as social cohesion and community relationships within a story of harmony. The study also shows how Singapore political leaders construct a narrow and limited discourse of harmony within the curricula and use it to legitimize policies that privilege particular groups, limit political freedoms, marginalize groups with less power or status, and circumscribe the kinds of actions a citizen can legitimately take.
5. Toward a critical hermeneutical approach of human rights education: universal ideals, contextual realities and teachers’ difficulties
Author: Michalinos Zembylas, Panayiota Charalambous, Constadina Charalambous & Stalo Lesta Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (19 May 2016): 497-517
The present paper takes the approach of critical hermeneutics in human rights education (HRE) that has been developed theoretically and tries to operationalize it in pedagogical practice. In particular, a group of Greek-Cypriot teachers were trained in a series of workshops on how critical hermeneutical approach (CHA) could be taught in the context of HRE. The paper explores teachers’ difficulties with and perspectives of CHA during the training designed and offered by the authors. The findings show how, in addition to epistemological issues involved concerning the meaning and implications of the CHA, the particularities of the local context (ethnic conflict, pedagogic traditions, educational structures) influenced the uptake of this approach. The implications are discussed in relation to the need to identify the difficulties teachers have with specific pedagogical approaches of HRE as they become manifest contextually, and the need to design teacher training in which teachers have opportunities to reflect upon and engage with these difficulties through a critical interpretive lens.
6. The ethical dimension of teacher practical knowledge: a narrative inquiry into Chinese teachers’ thinking and actions in dilemmatic spaces
Author: Xiangming Chen, Ge Wei & Shuling Jiang
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (01 Dec 2016): 518-541
Previous research concerning teacher practical knowledge has revealed its epistemological foundations, content structure and research methodology, but little research examines its ethical dimension. Based on a four-year project in China, this study probes the ethical dimension of an experienced teacher’s practical knowledge, explicated in a dilemmatic but teachable moment. Narrative inquiry is used as both a research method and a representational form to reveal the teacher’s ethical decisions and actions in the nested macro–meso–micro dilemmatic spaces. It is found that the teacher’s practical knowledge is embedded in a complicated web of meanings, and tapestried by her compromise to the national policies, her negotiation with the school governance and her caring for her students with diverse backgrounds. The ethical dimension of her practical knowledge provides her a vital power to carry out her educational practice. It is advocated that an ‘ethical turn’ for research and practice in teacher professional development is needed, so as to authorize teachers’ professionality reflected in their roles as humanity cultivators and transformative intellectuals. Moreover, under the global educational reform context since late 1990s, this article can be seen not only as a case from China, but also has implications for other countries in the world.
7. Between teachers’ perceptions and civic conceptions: lessons from three Israeli civics teachers
Author: Aviv Cohen
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (01 Dec 2016): 542-560
Building on sociocultural theories of teaching and learning, rooted in constructivist traditions, this study examined the teaching of civics in relation to contextual sociocultural factors in the Israeli educational system. The study focused on ways in which three civics teachers conceptualized and framed notions of good citizenship in relation to the teaching of the civics subject matter, and on the ways in which such notions manifest in their planned teaching. The main finding points to how the teachers framed their civics lessons in a manner that was in congruence with their perceptions of their students’ approaches to citizenship. Thus, the study reaches the conclusion that teachers’ perceptions are a key element in framing and conceptualizing civics lessons, resulting in a reality in which students from different backgrounds may experience significant differences in their orientation to the notion of good citizenship, limiting their exposure to multiple views.
8. Standing in need of justification: Michael Apple, R.S. Peters and Jürgen Habermas
Author: Quentin Wheeler-Bell
Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies (06 Feb 2017): 561-578
Curriculum decisions are increasingly seen as technocratic or bureaucratic problems, rather than democratic issues that must be deliberated over. As such, curriculum decisions are placed in the hands of a small minority of bureaucrats and business elites who assume the only purpose of education is to prepare children for college and/or the labour market. Within these times, it is essential to revisit classics works in order to move forward a critical theory of the curriculum. To develop a critical theory of the curriculum, I shall revisit two classic books in curriculum studies—R.S. Peters’s Ethics & Education and Michael Apple’s Ideology and Curriculum. I place Michael Apple and R.S. Peters in conversation with each other because both believe, albeit differently, that the curriculum ‘stands in need of justification’: both agree the curriculum must be publically justified through democratic deliberation. Furthermore, Apple and Peters develop different sets of tools for a critical theory of the curriculum—Apple provides tools for critique and Peters tools for the normative standards. However, both inadequately develop the normative standards for determining when the curriculum is democratically justified. These normative standards, I argue, are developed by Habermas’s critical theory of discourse ethics which is capable of building upon and expanding the insights of Apple and Peters.