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新近英语论文辑要
American Educational Research Journal 54卷第2期
2017-03-22

1. Pathways to the Principalship

An Event History Analysis of the Careers of Teachers With Principal Certification

Alex J. Bowers

Teachers College, Columbia University
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Christine Brigid Malsbary

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Author: Bradley W. Davis, Mark A. Gooden, Alex J. Bowers

Source: American Educational Research Journal(January 6, 2017): 207–240

Abstract:

Utilizing rich data on nearly 11,000 educators over 17 academic years in a highly diverse context, we examine the career paths of teachers to determine whether and when they transition into the principalship. We utilize a variety of event history analyses, including discrete-time hazard modeling, to determine how an individual’s race, gender, and their combination—among other characteristics—contribute to their likelihood of making this transition. We found that inequitable pathways to the principalship are not explained by systematic differences in personal and contextual characteristics along lines of race and gender but rather that the selection of school leaders may be a process influenced by systemic bias.

2. The Impact of Performance Ratings on Job Satisfaction for Public School Teachers

Author: Cory Koedel, Jiaxi Li, Matthew G. Springer, Li Tan

Source: American Educational Research Journal(February 1, 2017): 241–278

Abstract:

Spurred by the federal Race to the Top competition, the state of Tennessee implemented a comprehensive statewide educator evaluation system in 2011. The new system is designed to increase the rigor of evaluations and better differentiate teachers based on performance. The use of more differentiated ratings represents a significant shift in education policy. We merge teacher performance evaluations from the new system with data from post-evaluation teacher surveys to examine the effects of the differentiated ratings on job satisfaction for teachers. Using a regression-discontinuity design, we show that higher ratings under the new system causally improve teachers’ perceptions of work relative to lower ratings. Our findings offer the first causal evidence of which we are aware on the relationship between performance ratings and job satisfaction for individual teachers. 

3. Processes and Dynamics Behind Whole-School Reform

Nine-Year Journeys of Four Primary Schools

Julie J. ParkUniversity of Maryland
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Author: Yuk Yung Li

Source: American Educational Research Journal(January 19, 2017): 279–324

Abstract:

Despite decades of research, little is known about the dynamics of sustaining change in school reform and how the process of change unfolds. By tracing the nine-year reform journeys of four primary schools in Hong Kong (using multiyear interview, observational, and archival data), this study uncovers the micro-processes the schools experienced during their reform. New practices first took root in a group of pilot teachers before gradually disseminating to other teachers and eventually transforming the entire school. Challenges differed across the reform journey. Synergy between school leadership, external support, and organization redesign was critical for initial success. Continued progress depended on whether school leaders and external partners could adapt their roles and redesign the organization to address the school’s changing capacity and needs. The study reveals the long-term process of school reform and has crucial implications for policy, research, and practice.

4. Does the Match Matter? Exploring Whether Student Teaching Experiences Affect Teacher Effectiveness

Author: Dan Goldhaber, John M. Krieg, Roddy Theobald

Source: American Educational Research Journal(February 14): 325–359

Abstract:

We use data from six Washington State teacher education programs to investigate the relationship between teacher candidates’ student teaching experiences and their later teaching effectiveness. Our primary finding is that teachers are more effective when the student demographics of their current school are similar to the student demographics of the school in which they did their student teaching. While descriptive, this suggests that the school context in which student teaching occurs has important implications for the later outcomes of teachers and their students and that teacher education programs and school districts should consider placing student teachers in schools that are similar to the schools in which they are likely to teach once they enter the workforce. 

5. Connecting Teacher Preparation to Teacher Induction

Outcomes for Beginning Teachers in a University-Based Support Program in Low-Performing Schools 

Author: Kevin C. Bastian, Julie T. Marks

Source: American Educational Research Journal(February 2, 2017): 360–394

Abstract:

Given concerns with the performance and attrition of novice teachers, North Carolina allocated $7.7 million from Race to the Top to create the New Teacher Support Program (NTSP), an induction model developed and implemented by the state’s public university system and targeted at low-performing schools. In this study, we assess the associations between participation in the university-based program and the performance and retention of novice teachers. Overall, NTSP teachers were more likely to return to the same school. Outcomes varied by NTSP region, cohort, and dosage, with positive performance and retention results for teachers in the region and cohort with the most intensive participation and teachers receiving more coaching. These findings contribute to efforts to develop and retain teachers.